低鹽飲食對慢性腎臟病結局的影響:系統評價和薈萃分析

低鹽飲食對慢性腎臟病(CKD)患者的好處是有爭議的。我們對低鹽飲食對主要臨床結果的影響進行了系統回顧和meta分析。

Abstract

Objective The benefits of a low-salt diet for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of a low-salt diet on major clinical outcomes.

Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources MEDLINE by Ovid, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases.

Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that assessed the effect of a low-salt diet on the renal composite outcomes (more than 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during follow-up, doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease), rate of eGFR decline, change in proteinuria, all-cause mortality events, cardiovascular (CV) events, and changes in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.

Data extraction and synthesis Two independent researchers extracted data and evaluated their quality. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were used for dichotomous data. Differences in means (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were used to pool continuous data. We used the Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool to evaluate the quality of RCTs, and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale to evaluate the quality of cohort studies.

Results We found 9948 potential research records. After removing duplicates, we reviewed the titles and abstracts, and screened the full text of 230 publications. Thirty-three studies with 101 077 participants were included. A low-salt diet produced a 28% reduction in renal composite outcome events (RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89). No significant effects were found in terms of changes in proteinuria (SMD: −0.71; 95% CI: −1.66 to 0.24), rate of eGFR (decline MD: 1.16; 95% CI: −2.02 to 4.33), risk of all-cause mortality (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.46) and CV events (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.46 to 2.22).

Conclusion A low-salt diet seems to reduce the risk for renal composite outcome events in patients with CKD. However, no compelling evidence indicated that such a diet would reduce the eGFR decline rate, proteinuria, incidence of all-cause mortality and CV events. Further, more definitive studies are needed.

PROSPERO registration number CRD42017072395.

摘要翻譯(僅供參考)

目的 

低鹽飲食對慢性腎臟病(CKD)患者的好處是有爭議的。我們對低鹽飲食對主要臨床結果的影響進行了系統回顧和meta分析。

設計 

系統回顧和薈萃分析。

數據來源 

       Ovid的MEDLINE、EMBASE和Cochrane圖書館的數據庫。

       選擇研究的資格標準 我們包括隨機對照試驗(RCTs)和隊列研究,評估低鹽飲食對腎臟綜合結果(隨訪期間估計腎小球濾過率(eGFR)下降超過50%,血清肌酐翻倍或終末期腎病)、eGFR下降率、蛋白尿變化、全因死亡事件、心血管(CV)事件以及收縮壓和舒張壓變化的影響。

       數據提取和綜合 兩位獨立的研究人員提取了數據並評估了其品質。相對風險(RRs)與95%的CIs被用於二分法數據。均值差異(MDs)或標準化均值差異(SMDs)與95%CIs被用於匯集連續數據。我們使用Cochrane合作組織的偏見風險工具來評估RCTs的品質,使用Newcastle-Ottawa Scale來評估隊列研究的品質。

結果 

       我們發現了9948條潛在的研究記錄。在去除重復的記錄後,我們審查了標題和摘要,並篩選了230份出版物的全文。納入了33項研究,有101 077名參與者。低鹽飲食可使腎臟綜合結果事件減少28%(RR:0.72;95%CI:0.58至0.89)。在蛋白尿(SMD:-0.71;95%CI:-1.66至0.24)、eGFR(下降MD:1.16;95%CI:-2.02至4.33)、全因死亡風險(RR:0.92;95%CI:0.58至1.46)和CV事件(RR:1.01;95%CI:0.46至2.22)方面沒有發現明顯影響。

結論 

       低鹽飲食似乎可以降低CKD患者的腎臟綜合結果事件的風險。然而,沒有令人信服的證據表明這種飲食會降低eGFR下降率、蛋白尿、全因死亡率和CV事件的發生率。此外,還需要更多明確的研究。

      中國網是國務院新聞辦公室領導,中國外文出版發行事業局管理的國家重點新聞網站。本網通過10個語種11個文版,24小時對外發佈資訊,是中國進行國際傳播、資訊交流的重要窗口。

      凡本網註明“來源:中國網”的所有作品,均為中國網際網路新聞中心合法擁有版權或有權使用的作品,未經本網授權不得轉載、摘編或利用其他方式使用上述作品。

電話:0086-10-88828000

傳真:0086-10-88828231

媒體合作:0086-10-88828175

品牌活動合作:0086-10-88828063

廣告合作:0086-10-88825964