萬學教育 海文考研 考研教學與研究中心 陸漢艷
五道題中，有四道事實細節題，一道主旨題。這道主旨題不難解，文章中有非常明顯的詞和句，反復表明美國法律行業出現了問題，末段還給出了解決方案。單單根據咱們萬學海文鑽石卡課程中提到的“看題幹解題法”，也能又快又準地選出答案。下面我們看題幹：26題中提到a lot of students take up law as their profession;27題提到the costs of legal education即成本高，顯然是法律教育中存在的問題;28題提到hindrance of the reform of the legal system即法律體系改革的障礙;29題中有一個詞叫restrictive，也是講問題，故30題答案鎖定在B項 a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it或D項flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes之間，而D項的關鍵詞是“法律公司”，範圍太小，以偏概全，故答案為B。所以，解主旨題，解題方法思路正確，看似很難的題目，實則不難。
五道題中，難度最大的一道題是27題，這是一道綜合細節題，很容易進入命題人的陷阱。拿到題目，同學很容易定位到文中文中第三段第三句，該句講“在美國大多數州成為律師只有一條路徑：四年不相關學科(unrelated subject)的學士學位，在美國律師協會授權的200所法律學校中攻讀三年以獲得法律學位以及準備律師資格考試費用昂貴，這使得普通的法律畢業生債臺高築”。同學看到expensive preparation很容易選擇B項或是C項，覺得是準備考試太昂貴了，但是這個選項片面、膚淺。考生需要注意，題幹中有一個短語是add to，問的是“增加的成本”，綜合整句話來看，美國法律教育時間成本很高，前後至少有七年，且本科專業與法律不相關，也加大了考試的難度和成本，故答案為[D] pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major，其中another major對應文中的unrelated subject。結合萬學海文鑽石卡衝刺班的閱讀理解滿分技巧，“選項內涵深刻的是解”，D項最為深刻，因為在所有的成本中，時間成本是最高的，四年不相關學科的學位既增加了時間成本，也隱形增加了準備考試的成本，故為正確答案。
All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.
The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26. A lot of students take up law as their profession due to
[A] the growing demand from clients.
[B] the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C] the prospect of working in big firms.
[D] the attraction of financial rewards.
【答案】[D] the attraction of financial rewards
【解析】事實細節題。題目問的是“許多學生選擇法律作為他們專業的原因是什麼”，文章第二段第二句講“The best lawyers made skyscrapers–full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools”，意思是説“最好的律師掙很多錢，吸引更多的學生紛紛進入法律學校”。[D] the attraction of financial rewards中的attraction對應句中的tempting，financial rewards對應full of money。
27. Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A] Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.
[B] Receiving training by professional associations.
[C] Admissions approval from the bar association.
[D] Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
【答案】[D] pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
【解析】事實細節題。題目問“以下哪一項額外增加了美國大多數州法律教育的成本”，文中第三段第三句講“在美國大多數州成為律師只有一條路徑：四年不相關學科(unrelated subject)的學士學位，在美國律師協會授權的200所法律學校中攻讀三年以獲得法律學位以及準備律師資格考試費用昂貴，這使得普通的法律畢業生債臺高築”。綜合來看，美國法律教育時間成本很高，且本科學位專業與法律不相關，額外增加了成本，故答案為[D] pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major，其中another major對應文中的unrelated subject。
28. Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from
[A] the rigid bodies governing the profession.
[B] lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[C] the stern exam for would-be lawyers.
[D] non-professionals’ sharp criticism.
【答案】[A] the rigid bodies governing the profession
【解析】題幹問“法律體系改革的障礙源自於什麼”。對應于文章第四段，四段首句談到“法律體系改革”，第二句講“明智的觀點(sensible ideas)已經存在了很長時間，但是主管此專業的州級機構太保守了沒能實施(too conservative to implement them)”，其核心問題來自於“the state-level bodies that govern the profession”，故答案為[A] the rigid bodies governing the profession。
29. The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly because it
[A] prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.
[B] bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[C] aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
[D] keeps lawyers form holding law-firm shares.
【答案】[B] bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession
【解析】題目問“類似于行會的所有權體制被認為是限制性的，部分原因是什麼”，文章第五段首句講“費用高的另外一個原因是，限制性的類似于行會的所有權體制”，第二、三句對否定性的形容詞restrictive進行解釋，“除了哥倫比亞特區，非律師可能不會擁有法律公司的任何股份，這使得費用很高，改革緩慢”，故行會一樣的所有權體制被認為是限制性的，部分原因是“禁止外人進入行業”，故答案為[B] bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession。
30. In the text, the author mainly discusses
[A] the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.
[B] a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[C] the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.
[D] flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.
【答案】[B] a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
【解析】題幹問“作者在文章中主要討論什麼”，文章主要談及美國法律行業出現的問題，即：法律教育的成本高，而改革的速度慢，末段提出了解決方案，故答案為[B] a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it。