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回望十一年 中國應急再出發

日期:2019-05-10  來源:中國網 中國應急  編輯:王寧波

中國是世界上遭受自然災害最嚴重的國家之一。

2008年5月12日,中國四川省汶川縣發生特大地震,傷亡慘重,給災區和整個中國帶去物質、精神上的重創。痛定思痛,大地震後的這十一年間,中國防災減災能力得到跨越式提升。從舉國救災發展到舉國減災,在體制機制、學術研究、科技裝備、醫療救援、國際合作、宣傳教育等方面的建設都有了長足進步。

最受矚目的是機構改革上的大動作。2018年3月,中國成立應急管理部,將之前分散在13個部門的相關職能進行整合。過去的應急管理工作力量分散,部門之間缺乏高效的組織協調。應急管理部的成立,從體制上改變了這樣的局面。一個部門,就可以主要完成事前預防、事中救援、事後監管的任務。目前這個部門還在不斷發展中,相信在不久的將來,應急管理部能夠把全國與應急救援相關的力量都整合起來,使中國的應急戰鬥力得以再提高。

近年來,中國地震局一直致力推進地震預警技術攻關和技術試驗驗證。通過實施國家地震科技支撐計劃,自主研發了地震預警核心技術,先後在福建、首都圈、蘭州和川滇交界地區建成預警示範系統並投入試運作,還在福建晉江建成了地震預警資訊發佈示範區。

2018年,中國四川國際應急醫療隊,成為世衛組織認證的全球第二支國際最高級別Type3的國際應急醫療隊(EMT)。

天災無情,而在防災、減災、救災這件大事上,除了赴湯蹈火的信念之外,每一點一滴的進步都意味著能夠更好地保障民眾的生命財産安全。


China is a country profoundly impacted by natural disasters.

On May 12, 2008, a devastating earthquake hit Wenchuan county in southwestern China’s Sichuan province. It inflicted massive casualties and caused immeasurable material loss and mental suffering to the region and the country.

Drawing lessons from this bitter experience, in the past 11 years, China has made great progress in the development of disaster prevention and mitigation procedures. The country began to pool resources to reduce rather than only relieving disasters. Significant advances have been made in various fields, including institutional development, academic research, technical equipment manufacturing, medical treatment, international cooperation and public education.

The “big move” in institutional reform has also grabbed nationwide attention. In March of 2018, China established the Ministry of Emergency Management, integrating related functions of 13 different departments. Previous experiences had demonstrated China’s lack of unified strength and collective efficiency in emergency response scenarios, but now the establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Management has improved the situation on an institutional level. Specifically, a single department is responsible for prevention, response and rescue, as well as post-monitoring of emergencies. With its ongoing development, the Ministry of Emergency Management will gather the concerted efforts of the whole country to further improve China’s ability to respond to natural disasters in the future.

In recent years, China Earthquake Administration (CEA) has been devoted to conquering technological challenges in earthquake early warnings, and has been testing available technologies. Under the National Key Science &Technology Pillar Program on earthquake researches, CEA has independently developed core technologies for earthquake early warnings. Model warning systems have been piloted in Fujian Province, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Lanzhou in Gansu Province, and the border area between Sichuan and Yunnan Province, among which Jinjiang in Fujian Province has been made a model city for earthquake early warning system distribution.

In 2018, the China International Emergency Medical Team (in Sichuan) was classified as a Type 3 emergency medical team by the World Health Organization. This is the highest level in WHO's EMT initiative, and the team was the second in the world to obtain such a status.

Although nature shows no mercy, every single step made in disaster prevention, reduction and relief will translate to improved safety and greater protection of life and property.