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2003年國際翻譯日主題
中國網 | 時間: 2007-06-18  | 文章來源: 中國網

翻譯工作者的權利(Translators’ Rights)

國際翻譯家聯盟(FIT)把翻譯工作者的權利 確定為2003年的翻譯日主題,是希望重提該機構50年前成立的一個宗旨。

FIT從成立至今,始終將翻譯工作者的權利作為所關注的主要問題之一。1963年頒布,1994年修訂的《翻譯工作者章程》以及1976年聯合國教科文組織在內羅畢審議通過的《關於向翻譯工作者和翻譯作品提供法律保護,切實提高翻譯工作者地位的建議書》,這兩份文件均體現了國際譯聯對翻譯工作者權利的重視。

遺憾的是,雖然多年來國際譯聯及其會員組織為此做出了最大努力,翻譯工作者的地位卻遠遠沒有得到廣泛認同。儘管全球化讓人們進一步意識到了翻譯的必要性,但翻譯工作的專業性以及從業者的權利仍然沒有得到重視。

西方國家也不例外,那裏的翻譯工作者仍在爭取版權這一最基本的權利。即使《伯爾尼公約》認定譯文具有原創性,承認翻譯工作者擁有版權,出版商和發行商仍然經常予以回避或忽視。而因特網和電子出版物的問世使這個問題變得更加嚴重。

除去版權這種令出版物的譯者尤為關注的權利以外,還有其他權利需要引起注意,即:擁有適宜的工作環境的權利,它可以保障譯者創作出優質作品;獲得合理稿酬的權利;最重要的是:承認翻譯工作是一種基於專門培訓的專業性活動,而不是僅靠掌握兩種語言就可以從事的工作。由於公眾和用戶缺乏對翻譯這項工作全面的了解,專業譯者不得不證明他們所接受的教育、進行的工作、提出的稿酬標準,乃至生存方式都是必要而合理的。再有,因特網提供的機器翻譯系統的運用使現狀更加惡化,即使人們已經普遍認識到這種翻譯系統的譯文品質非常低劣。

除了這些專業方面的憂慮之外,還有更為令人擔心的問題, 那就是對人權的侵犯。人們曾多次呼籲國際譯聯對於那些慘痛的事件做出反應。例如:在薩曼·拉什迪遭到伊斯蘭教法學家的裁決後,他的兩位譯者被謀殺。另一個事件是,一位土耳其譯者因他翻譯的小説中的某些段落有被視為露骨的性描述而被告上法庭。

國際譯聯把翻譯工作者的權利確定為2003年翻譯日的主題,旨在促使國際譯聯會員組織和公眾加強以下的認識:翻譯在人類交流(包括文化、經濟、政治或社會交流)中起著重要作用,翻譯的專業化是非常必要的。

附:英文原文

Translators’ Rights

In choosing Translators’ Rights as the theme for International Translation Day 2003, the International Federation of Translators (FIT) wanted to revisit one of the reasons it was established 50 years ago.

Translators’ rights have been one of the main concerns of FIT since its beginning. The Translator’s Charter, published in 1963 and amended in 1994, and the Recommendation on the legal protection of Translators and Translations and the practical means to improve the Status of Translators, adopted by UNESCO in Nairobi in 1976 (Nairobi Recommendation) are evidence of this. (These documents can be found on the FIT website atwww.fit-ift.org.)

Unfortunately, despite the best efforts of FIT and its member associations over the years, the translator’s professional status is still far from being accepted universally. Although globalization has heightened awareness of the need for translation, it has not led to the recognition of the professional nature of the activity and the rights of its practitioners.

Western countries are no exception to this state of affairs, and translators there are still fighting for one of their most fundamental rights, that of copyright. Even though the Berne Convention, which considers a translation to be an original work, recognizes copyright for translators, publishers and distributors regularly evade or ignore it. The advent of the Internet and electronic publications have only exacerbated the problem.

In addition to copyright, which is of special concern to translators of publications, there are other rights that require attention: the right to proper working conditions that allow the translator to produce quality work, the right to reasonable remuneration, and above all the right to the recognition of translation a professional activity that requires specialised training and not simply a result of learning two languages. The lack of understanding on the part of the public and thosewho use translation often means that professional translators have to justify their education, their work, their rates and even their very existence. Again, the availability of machine translation systems on the Internet has not improved the situation, even though it is widely accepted that such systems provide very poor translations indeed.

To these professional concerns are added even more serious concerns, namely the violation of human rights. The International Federation of Translators has been called on many times to react to tragic circumstances. For example, the murder of two of Salman Rushdie’s translators after the fatwa was issued against him. Or the case of the Turkish translator brought to court for by translating a novel that contained passages deemed to be sexually explicit.

By making Translators’ Rights the theme of International Translation Day, the International Federation of Translators wants to heighten awareness among its member associations and the public about the importance of translation in human exchanges, be they cultural, economic, political or social, and of the need to recognise translation as a profession.

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